Measuring build timings with mathbench

Fast iteration times are something that many game developers consider to be of utmost importance. Keeping build times short is a major component of quick iteration for a programmer. Aside from the actual time spent compiling, any time you have to wait long enough that you start to lose focus on the activity you are working on, or you start to get distracted or lose track of what you were doing which costs you more time.

Thus one of my goals when writing glam was to ensure it was fast to compile. Rust compile times are known to be a bit slow compared to many other languages, and I didn’t want to pour fuel on to that particular fire.

As part of writing glam I also wrote mathbench so I could compare performance with similar libraries. I also always wanted to include build time comparisons as part of mathbench and I’ve finally got around to doing that with a new tool called buildbench.

Introducing build bench

buildbench uses the unstable -Z timings feature of cargo, thus you need a nightly build installed to use it.

buildbench generates a Cargo.toml and empty src/ in a temporary directory for each bench crate, recording some build timing information from cargo which is included in the summary table below. The temporary directory is created every time the tool is run so this is a full build from a clean state.

Each bench is only built once so you may wish to run buildbench multiple times to ensure results are consistent.

By default crates are built using the release profile with default features enabled. There are options for building the dev profile or without default features, see buildbench --help for more information.

The columns outputted include the total build time, the self build time which is the time it took to build the crate excluding dependencies, and the number of units which is the number of dependencies (this will be 2 at minimum).

When comparing build times keep in mind that each library has different feature sets and that naturally larger libraries will take longer to build. For many crates tested the dependencies take longer than the main crate. Also keep in mind if you are already using one of the dependencies in your project you won’t pay the build cost twice (unless it’s a different version).

crate version total (s) self (s) units full report link
cgmath 0.17.0 6.5 3.0 17 cgmath build timings
euclid 0.20.5 3.2 1.1 4 euclid build timings
glam 0.8.6 0.8 0.5 3 glam build timings
nalgebra 0.21.0 32.1 17.8 29 nalgebra build timings
pathfinder_geometry 0.5.0 5.6 0.3 8 pathfinder build timings
ultraviolet 0.4.5 2.4 1.2 4 ultraviolet build timings
vek 0.10.1 38.0 10.6 16 vek build timings

These benchmarks were performed on an Intel i7-4710HQ CPU with 16GB RAM and a Toshiba MQ01ABD100 HDD (SATA 3Gbps 5400RPM) on Linux.

Note that ultraviolet has been included in the build timings but I want to resolve issue #21 before including it in performance benchmarks.

Considering the results

It seems I achieved my goal of making glam fast to build! As glam grows and gets more features build times will of course increase, but a few seconds is the ballpark I’m hoping to stay in.

What isn’t being measured

buildbench is only measuring the time to do a full build. Incremental build times would be very interesting since that’s mostly what people will be doing during development. Especially from the point of view of iteration time. Unfortunately I think it would be quite time consuming to write a meaningful test of incremental build times across all crates in mathbench. To do that I think I’d need to write the equivalent amount of code for each crate, enough that changing it shows up in build times. It would be great to see the results of that, but it’s a lot more effort. For now I’ll have to live with comparing full build times.

Related to that, Maik Klein pointed out that one thing I am not measuring is the cost of generics in user code. When using generics a lot of the cost is shifted into the crate that is instantiating them. That is not something that buildbench is attempting to measure at the moment.

Non-optional features

One big difference between all of these crates is their code size. Most are oriented towards game development with the exception of nalgebra which has much broader design goals and supports many more features than glam. glam is about 8.5K lines of Rust, nalgebra is more like 40K.

Feature wise glam is much closer to cgmath but without generics. Aside from the use of generics one big difference between glam and cgmath and indeed most of the other crates is what dependencies are included by default. The most recent release of cgmath on has non-optional dependencies on approx, num-traits and rand. I noticed on master that rand is now optional, but there hasn’t been a release made in a while.

Default features

In addition to making most glam dependencies optional I also made all optional features opt-in rather than opt-out. That is glam optional dependencies are not enabled by default. That is part of why glam’s build time is lower than the others, by default its only dependency is cfg-if. glam does has have support for serde, mint and rand but you have to enable those features if you want to use them.

vek stands out as taking a significant amount of time compared to the others. One thing to note though is the self time at 10.7 seconds is a lot less than 17.9 seconds of nalgebra. A large portion of the time building vek is dependencies, mostly serde and serde_derive.

No default features surprise

You could argue that for a fair comparison I should be building all these crates with default-features = false. That is true and buildbench does support this, but unfortunately with some crates one does not simply disable default features. Many libraries that support no_std do so by making a std feature which is included in the default feature list. Thus no_std can be supported by disabling default features on a dependency using default-features = false. Because of this building with default-features = false can give surprising results.

Early versions of mathbench disabled default features for all the math libraries in an attempt to improve build times. I encountered a few issues taking this approach and eventually went back to using default features.

One problem was nalgebra was getting really poor results for some benchmarks in a way that didn’t make much sense. The dot product benchmark was similar to other libraries but vector length was really slow, the only difference between those is a square root. Fortunately some members of the Rust Community Discord prompted the author of nalgebra to investigate the issue and submitted a PR. The problem was that disabling defaults effectively put nalgebra in no_std mode. In this mode it changed the way math libraries were linked which meant calls to functions like sqrt or sin were no longer inlined, which has a big performance impact. I also had an issue raised to benchmark with default features enabled as that’s what most people will use so between these two things I started building all libraries with default features enabled.

The nalgebra no_std issue was quite surprising to me. I hadn’t realised the link to no_std and If I wasn’t writing benchmarks I don’t think I would have noticed that something strange was going on. This is mentioned in the nalgebra documentation under web assembly and embedded programming but I think most people aren’t going to go looking for that when disabling default features.

vek also has some surprising issues around disabling default features and support for no_std. vek has the largest total build time of all the crates tested, but it’s self time is only 25% of the total build time and building dependences are the other 75% or 30 seconds on my laptop. Looking at vek build timings the serde and serde_derive crates are a large chunk of that 30 seconds, According to the in the 0.10.1 release that I was using, serde is an optional dependency. OK, so I’ll build vek with default-features = false, but this is intended for use with no_std so if you just disable default features vek doesn’t build at all. To build with no_std you need to manually add the libm feature, which I assume will link the necessary math routines. I imagine that this will have the same performance implications that it did for nalgebra. On the bright side this bought the total build time down to 7.54 seconds!. If you are still building for std though things get a bit trickier. You need to manually add the num-traits/std feature. Doing this I was able to build in 6.93 seconds. Initially I tried disabling default features and enabling std again but this adds the serde/std feature, pulling in the serde and serde_derive crates which were supposed to be optional. I removed the serde/std from the std feature of vek and it compiled, so perhaps it isn’t necessary. Removing it certainly makes the default build a lot faster.

I’m glad it is possible but it’s really not obvious how to build with default features disabled.

This isn’t really a criticism of nalgebra or vek. I feel that this confusion has arisen due to the convention of using default-features = false to build for no_std. If all you want to do is reduce unused feature dependencies default-features = false should be the right lever to push but in reality due to this being conflated with building for no_std it’s often not that simple.

One criticism I do have of many crates is this kind of behaviour is not well documented. Both nalgebra and vek do document how to build for no_std but if you just want to disable optional features in a std build you seem to be on your own.

No default features

With all of that out of the way, I think that making the optional features of glam not default features was a good choice. As I’ve discussed above turning off default features has not always been an easy thing to do. I think having them off by default and documenting what features are available and how they can be enabled might be a better approach for the majority of users.

Fair benchmarks

While providing benchmarks for the default features is the most useful benchmark it doesn’t always represent the minimal build time for many crates. Unfortunately it seems I will need to tune the minimal set of features for each crate to achieve this. That’s something I was trying to avoid doing but I think in fairness I will support it in a future version of buildbench. Equally adding support for building all dependencies might also be informative.

In conclusion

As usual trying to compare libraries on some metric turned out to be not that simple.

Turning off default features is harder than it should be. This setting is often an alias for #![no_std] support. I think that’s unfortunate and perhaps there should be more explicit flags added to cargo to build for no_std. The Rust language is a very explicit language, there is not a lot of hidden behaviour. The pattern of using default features to control std versus no_std builds feels contrary to that.

Ultimately the point of this exercise was to provide another metric to consider when choosing a math library. Are you paying for features you aren’t using?